Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Notes for Lesson 15

Lesson 15 – The Silent Years, Messianic Prophecies, Festivals

I. The Silent Years

· At the close of the OT, Israel (the Northern Kingdom) is scattered and Judah (the Southern Kingdom) is slowly returning to the land ruled by Persia

· 333 B.C. - ______ALEXANDER THE GREAT___ defeats Persia and Greece rules the world

· 323 B.C. – Alexander dies and Antigonus takes over

· 320 B.C. – Ptolemy rules Jerusalem and most of Asia Minor

· Under Ptolemy II the Jews of Alexandria translate the Pentateuch into Greek – this is called the SEPTUAGINT_______

· 198 B.C. - ____SYRIA_______ defeats Ptolemy rule and builds their empire on the ruins of Alexander’s empire – these people were called the ____SELEUCIDS__

· Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabees

· 63 B.C. – Rome took Jerusalem from the Maccabees

· Antipater of Rome placed his two sons in Israel to rule over Galilee and Judea – Herod the Great was king of Judea

· In 20 B.C. Herod began rebuilding the Temple – it took 18 months, using 1,000 priests and carpenters

· Because of the tension between Hellenistic thought and Jewish orthodoxy, Jewish sects arose:

o The ____PHARISEES____ – these were the spiritual descendants or followers of the Maccabees, who fought against the Hellenizers in the earliers days – the name Pharisee means “Separatist” and indicated they were non-conformists to the Greek thought – this was an orthodox group who upheld and added to the Law in order to elevate their position and the Jewish tradition – they controlled the synagogues

o The _____SADDUCEES_______ – denied any scripture other than Mosaic Law, denied the doctrine of resurrection and did not believe in angels or spirits – they got along with the Hellenists and controlled the priesthood and Temple ritual

o The ____ESSENES________– this was a knee jerk reaction to the materialism of the Pharisees and wealth of the Sadducees – they withdrew from society and lived lives of severe self-discipline and celibacy – they were big on study of scripture and held all possessions in common – war and slavery were contrary to their principles – similar lifestyles to that of modern day monks – the monastery where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found has been thought by most scholars to be a residence of Essene monks, who had left the corrupt influences of the world to prepare the way of the Lord in the wilderness

o The ____SCRIBES______– not a sect but a profession – they were copyists of the law, were considered an authority on scriptures and taught in the synagogues, thus had close relationships with the Pharisees

o The _____HERODIANS_______– these were Jewish citizens who felt it was best to embrace the Roman culture and Romanize the nation in order to survive – this was more of a political party than a religious sect

· The Apocryphal books were written during this time of silence and were never accepted by the Jews or Jesus as being equal to the other books of the Old Testament

II. Messianic Prophecies

· The OT prophets not only prophesied about the captivity of rebellious Israel, but also of the promised One – the Messiah

· In Isaiah alone there were 14 specific prophesies that Jesus literally fulfilled:

o Born of a virgin (7:14)

o Galilean ministry (9:1,2)

o Heir to the throne of David (9:7)

o Have his way prepared (40:3-5)

o Spat on and struck (50:6)

o Exalted (52:13)

o Disfigured by suffering (52:14, 53:2)

o Make a blood atonement (53:5)

o Widely rejected (53:1,3)

o Bear our sins and sorrows (53:4,5)

o Be our substitute (53:6,8)

o Voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment (53:7,8)

o Buried in a rich man’s tomb (53:9)

o Save those who believe in Him (53:10,11)

o Die with transgressors (53:12)

o Heal the brokenhearted (61:1,2)

· Why were the wise men from the east looking for a Messiah?

· When Herod asked about the birth of a king, the chief priests and scribes pointed to Micah 5:2 and Herod sent the wise men to ____BETHLEHEM____

III. The Festivals – one more avenue of prophetic pictures

· Leviticus 23:1-4 – what is the “Sabbath”?

· The Feasts of Leviticus:

1. The Feast of ____PASSOVER______ – Leviticus 23:5 – we’ve already looked at this and have seen the symbolism of Jesus in it – it was to happen on the first month of the Jewish year (Nisan) on the fourteenth day

2. The Feast of ____UNLEAVENED BREAD________ – Leviticus 23:6-8 – on the fifteenth day of Nisan, they were to celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread – this was to last for seven days and it was the time to clean out the house of all leaven which represents dealing with sin – I Cor. 5:6 – a little leaven corrupts the whole lump – unleavened bread was used in Passover and today, these celebrations are placed together

3. The Feast of ____FIRST FRUITS_____ – Leviticus 23:9-14 – this feast begins the first day after the Sabbath of the seven days of the Feast of Unleavened bread – this is a celebration to bring the first harvest to the Lord – this would be a barley harvest, but not the Jewish main harvest of wheat – the purpose was for the Lord to bless the second harvest through the offering of the first

4. The Feast of ____WEEKS (PENTECOST)_______ – Leviticus 23:15-22 – this feast occurs the first Sabbath after the Feast of First fruits, counting seven Sabbaths and then on the first day after that last Sabbath – so 50 days total (thus the name “Pentecost”) – it is a feast celebrating the wheat harvest, when the harvest would be greater than the first fruit offering

***These are the Spring Festivals – these festivals were instituted nearly 1400 years before the ministry of Jesus Christ, yet Jesus fulfilled each one of them literally on the appointed day:

o At Passover, He ate with the disciples (Wednesday evening), went to the garden to pray, was arrested and went through 7 trials in the night, was put on the cross and had to be off before sundown on Thursday because the day after Passover is always a holy convocation – it is the Feast of Unleavened bread– He became our Passover lamb on Passover

o Then, in the grave by Thursday at sundown, going into the Feast of Unleavened Bread – dealing with sin – he went into Sheol and set the prisoners free on the exact day

o Then, on the first day of the week, which was the first opportunity the women had to come and dress his body since there were two Sabbaths in a row, Jesus rose from the dead on the Feast of First Fruits and became the first fruits of resurrection – I Cor. 15:20

o Fifty days later at Pentecost, the Holy Spirit was given to the church and 3,000 members were added – on the Feast of Weeks, which is a celebration of the increased harvest – Acts 2:41 – this is a fulfillment of this festival, where the first fruits promised a great harvest to come

5. Feast of _____TRUMPETS______ – Leviticus 23:24,25 – Rosh Hashanah – means Head of the Year – not the religious year but the civil year – the first day of the seventh month (Tishri) – this feast was a required Sabbath and was connected to the new moon of the seventh month (completely dark). Jewish tradition says that beginning on this day and for 10 days (days of awe), God decided the fate of the living – will they live another year? Will this be the last year of their existence? Trumpets indicated announcements and judgment – today for the Jews, Rosh Hashanah represents the new year

6. The Day of ____ATONEMENT____ (Yom Kippur)– Leviticus 23:26-32 – ten days after the start of the days of awe comes the day of Atonement – this was the one day of the year that a priest would enter the holy of holies and offer a sacrifice for the sins of the people – all year long they have brought sacrifices, but for those sins that they committed unawares, this was an important sacrifice – if God rejected their offering, He would take the life of the priest – multiple sacrifices would be made throughout the day, as well as the tradition of the two goats – one would be sacrificed, the other would be the scapegoat on which the sins of the people would fall – this is a picture of Christ again, not only paying the penalty of our sin with His blood, but also bearing the weight of our sin on his shoulders, put out from fellowship with God. Yom Kippur is representative of a day when Israel will repent and recognize Jesus as Messiah – the one who paid for their sins and brought them salvation

7. Feast of _____BOOTHS______ – Leviticus 23:34-43 – also known as the feast of booths – On the 15th day of Tishri, the week long celebration of the feast of Tabernacles begins – the Jews would build little huts or booths from bulrushes to remember when they left Egypt and lived in temporary housing in the wilderness and reminds them of when God dwelt among them in the desert

****Here is the website for the list of prophecies I passed around today - it would be a great study to go through and highlight in your Bible every prophecy, then as you read the Word, you will see by the highlighted portion where the Messianic prophecies fall in OT scripture! Just a suggestion...


(You may have to cut and paste it - I'm struggling to get it to work right within the blog - sorry!)

1 comment:

  1. Thank you for the web site, Kristen, I wish you would make a diagram of what you put on the board this morning of the last four days of Jesus, life, death and resurrection. That was so helpful.